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Lubrication Of Elevators
- Jul 27, 2018 -

The elevator is divided into two categories: elevators and escalators.

The main components of various types of elevators vary, but usually include eight components: traction system, guiding system, car, door system, weight balance system, electric drive system, electrical control system, safety protection system. The main machines of the elevator are mostly located at the top, including the motor and control system. The motor rotates through the gears or (and) pulleys to act as the power for the chassis and the counterweight to move up and down. The control system controls the operation of the motor and other operations, including controlling elevator start and brake, and safety monitoring.

There are many parts in the elevator equipment that need lubrication, mainly including traction gear boxes, wire ropes, guide rails, hydraulic buffers and car door machines.

For a toothed traction elevator, the function of the traction system reduction gearbox is to reduce the output speed of the traction machine and increase the output torque. There are many types of reduction gearbox structures for traction systems. Commonly used are worm gears, bevel gears and planetary gears. Most of the turbines of the worm-type traction machine adopt wear-resistant bronze. The worm adopts alloy steel with surface carburizing and quenching. The sliding between the tooth surfaces of the worm drive is large, the contact time of the tooth surface is long, and the friction and wear are prominent. Therefore, no matter which kind of worm gear drive, there is the problem of extreme pressure and anti-wear. Similarly, bevel gear and planetary gear traction machines also have extreme pressure and wear resistance problems. In addition, the oil used in the traction machine should have good fluidity at low temperatures and good oxidation stability and thermal stability at high temperatures. Therefore, the gear of the reduction gearbox of the toothed traction machine usually selects the worm gear oil with the viscosity of VG320 and VG460, and this kind of lubricating oil can also be used as the lubrication of the escalator chain. The anti-wear lubrication performance is greatly improved, forming a strong oil film on the metal surface, and adhering to the metal surface for a long time, effectively reducing the friction between the metals, so that the gears get good lubrication protection immediately upon starting. Gear lubricants have excellent water resistance, oxidation resistance and strong adhesion, which can improve the sealing of gearboxes (worm gear boxes) and reduce oil leakage.

For the oil used in the reduction gearbox of the traction machine, the temperature of each gear and bearing of the general elevator reduction gearbox should be less than 60 °C, the oil temperature in the chassis should not exceed 85 °C, and the oil should be selected according to different models and functions of the elevator. Lubricating oil should pay attention to the amount of oil, oil temperature and oil leakage.

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